Dementia prevention and cardiovascular risk factors: a mini-review
Background and Aim: Although dementia prevalence is increasing worldwide, currently, there are no effective ways for prevention nor optimal treatment for disease control. In this mini-review, we discuss the results of observational studies and randomized clinical trials (RCTs) about the association between cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) and dementia and future perspectives of studies in this topic.
Methods: We briefly described the role of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) on dementia risk and the limitations presented by previous studies. Results: CVRFs have been associated with higher risk of dementia in several longitudinal studies and the control of these factors has been considered a promising way to prevent this dreadful disease. However, the available RCT that investigated the effect of CVRF control on dementia incidence have not confirmed this hypothesis. These RCTs have important limitations (e.g. short follow-up time, initiation of treatment at advanced aged) that do not allow definitive conclusions at this time.
Conclusion: Currently, there is lack of evidence that the treatment of CVRF will prevent dementia. Future studies should consider the interdependence of risk factors using new analytical methods.
Keywords: Dementiacardiovascular diseaserisk factors